Results show that participants who viewed photographs that included a person were significantly more likely to respond from another's perspective than those who saw photographs with no person.  There were no differences in perspective of responses for the person looking versus reaching.  Participants who saw the scene without a person were significantly more likely to respond from their own perspective.  This means that the presence of a person in the photograph affected the perspective used even though the question focused solely on the two objects.  The researchers state that these results suggest disembodied cognition, in which the participants put themselves into the body of the person in the photograph. 
In the years following Lewis and Clark’s expedition, it was the United States government’s undying vision to own all of the land from sea to shining sea. This vision could possibly be contributed to the Old Testament prophet Zechariah, when he said “His rule will extend from sea to sea.” (Zechariah 9:10) The primary reason behind this idea of righteous westward expansion was American columnist John O’Sullivan’s definition of the term entitled “Manifest Destiny.” In this idea, the Americans believed that God had placed the Anglo-Saxon race, (the white race) above all others, and had allotted the continent to them. These beliefs can be connected to the Massachusetts Bay Colony and it’s well known leader, Governor John Winthrop. In particular, he stated that the colonies’ inhabitants were to be “as a City upon a Hill, the eyes of all people upon us.” He seemed to be claiming that the role of the ancient Israelites, possibly even the early Christians, was now being passed on to the citizens in the colony. The idea of spanning the continent in God’s name is in fact, a proper and noble act. However, it is incorrect to do so at the expense of human lives. The idea that the Americans were God’s chosen people, just as the Israelites were, is a noble, yet misinterpreted and false idea. But, what had started out as a noble and respectful idea of leadership and brotherhood, like many other noble ideas, changed over time. Instead of being an example for others to follow, and being brotherly in sharing that example with others, forced assimilation took place of understanding and tolerance. What was bred out of this was severe contempt for non-Christians, and a mislead conception that the “heathens” did not deserve such a wealth of land and resources.